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10.4. -

10.2 - , 8.2.1. , . - , 9.4.

, 8.2.1 9.4 . 10.1. V , . . 6, - 10.3 :

1) V . 10.1. , ;

. 10.1. , . : 1 , 0 - , . . [Little and Schluchter (1985)].

2) X . 10.1. -, . - ; , .

, , X - . 6.

10.2.2 10.3.4 - , -, ( . 10.2.3). , . 10.1, 8.2.1 9.4 .

, , 10.2.2 [Day (1969)] . , . , [Aitkin and Rubin (1985)], .

10.3. (. ) -

10.3. . [Aitkin and Wilson (1980)] - . . . 10.3,). . 10.3,) ( - . - . , (. . 0 1) . 10.3,). . , , , , .

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