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8.4.

8.4.1.

() , , X . - -, . - -, .

8.4. . , . , -. , , . , . 2, .

- ,

- - , ,

, , (8.9) , , ,

(8.10)

, - , (8.11). , , , [Healy and Westmacott (1956)] 2.4.3.

8.4.2.

, . - - , .

, , . , - , 8.2, -

- X X, -, . - , , , Y, (. 6.6), . . . , , . 6.1, . , , -. . 6.

, () , , . , , .

, - . , , , , 8.2.2. , [Little (1979)], , [Beale and Little (1975)].

- , :

-, ,

- , , .

- , 8.2.1 . , , , -, - X X

8.5. . ( ) [. Reinisch, Rosenblum, Rubin and Schulzinger (1985)]. 4653

(, ) 9 , . , 9 , , .

- , - 8.2. - 10 , . - , , . , , . [Beale and Little (1975)], . . 8.2.

8.2. (. )

. 8.2 9 . - , 9 . , .

(. . ), . , , , . 1262 3524 .

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