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7.2. -.

- - . , -, . , (, , ).

- : 1) ; 2) ; 3) , ; 4) . - , , , , ,

- , , . [McKendrick (1926)] . [Hartley (1958)] . [Baum, Petrie, Soules and Weiss (1970)] , , . [Orchard and Woodbery (1972)] , . [Sundberg (1974)] , [Beale and Little (1975)] . [Dempster, Laird and Rubin (1977)]. . : 1) , , , ; 2) . 1977 . - (., , [Wu (1983)]).

- ( ) ()- ,

. , . , . . , . , , - , , . [Dempster, Laird and Rubin (1977)] , , 6 7.5. , - , - , , , .

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